Sociologists Elizabeth Gorman of the University of Virginia and Julie Kimec of Washington State University carried out five different surveys given in different years, to different groups of men and women in Britain and the United States.
They discovered that a gender gap persisted in ratings of the statement: “My job requires that I work very hard,” with women significantly more likely to say they strongly agreed.
“Between a man and a woman who hold the same job, shoulder the same burdens at home and have the same education and skills, the woman is likely to feel she must work harder,” Elizabeth said.
The paper, ‘We (Have to) Try Harder: Gender and Required Work Effort in Britain and the United States’ says, “We argue that the association between sex and reported required work effort is best interpreted as reflecting stricter performance standards imposed on women, even when women and men hold the same jobs.”
“This is what women are up against. They have to prove themselves,” Elizabeth added.